زندگینامه احمد ظاهر
احمدظاهر، از آوازخوان برجسته و محبوب افغانستان است که در ٢٤ جوزای ۱۳٢۵ خورشیدی (۱۴ ژوئن ۱۹۴۶) در ولایت لغمان در خانواده روشنفکر دیده به جهان گشود. و در تاریخ ٢٤ جوزای ۱۳۵٨ (۱۴ ژوئن ۱۹۷۹) ظاهرا در يک اثر حادثهٔ ترافیکی جان باخت.
احمدظاهر در بیست چهارم جوزای سال ۱۳۲۵ خورشیدی در ولایت لغمان زاده شد. احمد ظاهر آواز خوانی را از مکتب آغاز نمود و اولین آهنگش را در لیسه حبیبیه خواند. وی پس از نشان دادن استعداد در موسیقی در رادیو افغانستان برنامههایی اجرا نمود.
احمد ظاهر پس از گذراندن دوره دانشسرا (دارالمعلمین) راهی هندوستان شد تا به تحصیلات موسیقی بپردازد. شاید او اولین کسی بود که آلات موسیقی غربی را با موسیقی افغانی وفق داد و سازهای آکاردئون، ارگ و ترومپت و غیره را به موسیقی افغانی هدیه آورد. آوازه او از طریق موسیقی از شهرت پدرش که صدراعظم وقت افغانستان بود بالاتر رفت. شهرت او آنقدر بر سر زبانها بود و هست که مردم افغانستان هنوز فکر میکنند او بهترین آوازخوان افغانستان تا هم اکنون بوده است. او در سال ۱۳۵۱ خورشیدی لقب بهترین آوازخوان سال افغانستان را به دست آورد.
احمد ظاهر سه بار ازدواج كرد و ازين سه ازدواج دو فرزند دارد، يكی "شبنم" و ديگر "احمد رشاد" كه هر دو خارج از كشور در ایالات متحده آمریکا زندگی میكنند.
احمد ظاهر بخاطر درگیریهای خانوادگی راهی زندان شد و درین هنگام بود که مادرش درگذشت. روایتی وجود دارد که وی پس از رهایی از زندان، در عروسی دختر زمامدار وقت "حفیظالله امین" بنابر اصرار دخترش، شرکت کرد و آواز خواند. بسیاری بر این عقیدهاند که این واقعه باعث شد تا حفیظالله امین به فکر قتل وی گردد و از همین روی، قتل احمد ظاهر را که در سالنگ صورت گرفت، نیز به امین نسبت میدهند. پیکر او ابتدا در مسجد حاجی مجيد در سردخانه نگهداری و سپس در گورستان "شهدا صالحین" به خاک سپرده شد.
احمد ظاهر نماینده موسیقی کلاسیک افغانستان شمرده میشود که آهنگهائی با مفهوم و جاندار را برای شنوندگان عرضه داشت. احمد ظاهر بیشتر کوشش میکرد تا از بهترین، زیباترین و معتبرترین اشعار در آهنگهای خود استفاده کند و از همین روی، علاقه او به حافظ، مولانا، سعدی، خیام، بیدل، پروین بهبهانی، عشعری و غیره شعرای زبر دست زبان فارسی بوده است. احمد ظاهر به زبانهای فارسی، پشتو، هندی و انگلیسی آواز خوانده است.
آهنگهای "خدا بود یارت"، "مادر من"، "از پیش من برو که دل آزارم"، "برایم گریه کن امشب"،"عجب صبری خدا دارد" از جمله آهنگهای مشهوری است که افغانها با خود زمزمه میکنند.
احمد ظاهر هم عصر شهرت و آوازه گوگوش در ایران بود و عدهای این دو را رقیب سالم میدانستند. از احمد ظاهر آهنگهای زیادی به یادگار مانده است که در چهارده آلبوم تدوین گردیده و به شکل صوتی در بازار عرضه گردیده است. از احمد ظاهر فقط دو آهنگ تصویری ثبت شده است و سایر آهنگهای تصویری وی مقتبس از همین دو آهنگ و یا هم عکسهای وی اند.
احمد ظاهر نه تنها در افغانستان، که بلکه در دو کشور تاجیکستان و ایران نیز علاقهمندان خود را دارد. این علاقه در تاجیکستان به شکل بسیار بالائی وجود دارد و آهنگهای وی هنوز هم از بهترینها به حساب میرود.
احمد ظاهر نام کهنهای در افغانستان نیست و آهنگهای وی هنوز هم علاقهمندان بیشمار خود را دارد، طوری که بیشترین مخاطبان رادیوها آهنگهائی از احمد ظاهر فرمایش میدهند و این باعث شده است تا به منظور فرصت دادن به سایر خوانندگان، مجریان برنامههای موسیقی آهنگهای احمد ظاهر را در برنامههای بهترین موسیقی به رقابت نگذارند، زیرا میدانند در صورت وجود آهنگ احمد ظاهر، وی برنده بلا منازع خواهد بود.
سالانه از سالروز شهادت احمد ظاهر در افغانستان و تاجیکستان تجلیل بعمل میآید. در افغانستان رسم بر این است که در سالروز شهادت وی، رادیوها و تلویزیونها برنامههائی را در مورد وی پخش میکنند و تنها و تنها آهنگهای احمد ظاهر را به نشر میرسانند
Ahmad Zahir's Biography
A celebrity of enduring popularity almost three decades after his death, Ahmad Zahir is considered as a legend and an icon of Afghan music. Born on June 14, 1946, he was the son of late Dr. Abdul Zahir (born 1910, in Laghman), who was an influential Afghan politician and a one time Afghan Prime Minister (1971-1972) during the reign of King Zahir Shah.
Ahmad Zahir attended Habibia High School in the early 1960s and his interest in music developed during this period where he often sang in his school concerts, accompanied by his band that was made up of mainly his friends and classmates: Nabil Miskinyar on drums, Omar Sultan on guitar, Farid Zaland on congas and Kabir Howaida on piano, as well as other talented musicians who would accompany him from time to time. He himself would mainly play the accordion as he sang. In one particular concert, during his school days, he sang so beautifully that his schoolmates declared him “Bulbul-e Habibia”. The band, which later became known as the Amateur Band of Habibia High School, gained popularity with their performances in local concerts during celebratory occasions such as Nouroz, Eid, and Afghan Independence Day.
After his graduation from high school he attended and graduated from Darul Malimeen (Teachers’ College) in Kabul. He continued his higher education for two more years in India to get his degree as an English instructor. But his true calling, of course, was to sing. With the approval and encouragement of his family he was able to pursue his true love of music. Rising from the acclaim of the band, Ahmad Zahir branched onto his solo career. Carrying his musical instincts to new heights, he began composing songs based on well-recognized Dari poems. The meaning and depth of his songs quickly garnered him national attention as did the tenor voice that was complementary to a wide range of musical notes. His first recorded song, gar kuni yak nizara, was also his own composition, sung in the pilo raga, which he had not been taught by anyone at that time. With this song he proved his God-given talent and true genius, at an early age, which the Almighty blessed him with. He continued composing and recording his future songs such as azeezam ba yaadat, ahista-ahista, akhir ay darya, hama yaranam, agar sabza boodam, guftam ke mekhwaham tura, shabe ze shabha, parween-e man and many more.
After a couple of years Ahmad Zahir married and his first and only son, Rishad was born. By this time he had already decided that he was simply not made for teaching, but that music was his true destiny. Besides teaching and his musical interests, at that time, he also held a job at Kabul Times as a journalist. But by this time his popularity had reached such a height that it was pretty clear to him and his family that he was born to sing. Unfortunately, as his popularity grew, his marriage was starting to fail and it resulted in a divorce.
Later on, he married his second wife, from whom he was expecting his second child. He had chosen the name Shabnam should it be a girl. By this stage in his life he was on top of the world. He had already been chosen singer of the year several times and he had recorded over 19 albums, each containing 12-16 new songs. Aside from his albums, he also had many hits on the national radio, not to mention a vast collection of his wonderful majlisi recordings. But his voice recordings were not the only means through which his vast pool of fans was able to listen to his enchanting voice. He also organized huge concerts in Kabul and other major cities of Afghanistan, leaving the most memorable impressions in the hearts of his fans. Throughout this adventurous journey of his life, he was able to make many friends and countless fans because of his great charisma, charm, and friendly personality.
With the changes in the political landscape of Afghanistan, Ahmad Zahir became conscious of the socio-political transformation of his homeland. He adjusted his tone and the contents of his music to reflect his feelings through his songs, such as zindagi akhir sar Ayed, bigzarad bigzarard, and safar bee roshenAyee. Such songs, which carried revolutionary lyrics and reflected the feelings of a patriotic artist, stirred enough controversy in the political realms, which would later cost him his life.
On his 33h birthday (June 14, 1979) he was assassinated by the order of a communist general named Daud Taroon who used one of Ahmad Zahir’s best friends as an accomplice to carry out his orders. Taroon was not only an envious and jealous enemy of Ahmad Zahir, but also because Ahmad Zahir’s political stance was at odds with the communist government of the time. Sadly, his precious Shabnam, whom he was eagerly looking forward to, would come into the world on the same day of his passing.
More than a quarter of a century after his death, his popularity remains strong among his fans. Many Afghans truly love him from the heart, whether it is the younger generation, born outside of Afghanistan, who can barely understand the lyrics of his music; or those who grew up during the heydays of Ahmad Zahir; or those who saw him live in-concert and in person; or whether it is the much older generation who are now more understanding and appreciative of his legendary work. Ahmad Zahir will continue to live in the hearts of his fans.
In the past years, many talented artists and musicians have come and gone, but Ahmad Zahir’s voice, talent, fame, and charisma, has remained unrivaled. He remains a source of inspiration for new and aspiring artists and has rightfully earned the title of Afghanistan’s Nightingale. His legacy as the most celebrated musical phenomenon in Afghanistan and the embodiment of modern Afghan music goes on.